Learn Tajweed Rules And Get Double The Reward From Allah (SWT)
Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) said: “Verily the one who recites the Quran beautifully, smoothly, and precisely (with correct tajweed rules), he will be in the company of the noble and obedient angels. And as for the one who finds difficulty, stammering or stumbling while reciting Quranic verses, then he will get TWICE that reward.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari).
The struggle of learning the Quran as a non Arabic speaker is real, not only do we have to memorise the Arabic Alphabet, but we have to pronounce them correctly too, which is not easy for everyone. For those who find it difficult, it is comforting to think that Allah will double the reward for people who are struggling with it. This reward is for those who struggle with Quran learning and put more effort into learning Tajweed Rules and spend even more time to get their Makhaarij Al-Huroof on point, all to recite the Quran beautifully and please Allah (SWT).
9 Tajweed Rules – Intro For Beginners
To get you started, in this article we have compiled a summarised list of the common Tajweed Rules. Each of these rules will be explained in a short, easy to understand format in sha Allah. If you would like to learn more about them, you can click on the URL at the end of every section to read further. And also, you can go to the next page to learn about the next Tajweed Rules or back to this page from any of the detailed pages. This way you can learn in a more systematic way, in sha Allah.
I. The Tajweed Rules of Noon Sakinah & Tanween
In the Quran, there are a couple of basic rules we encounter; the first ones are Noon Sakinah and Tanween. Since the sound they produce is the same, they follow the same rules when a letter comes after them:
Ithar by definition means to pronounce clearly. If right after Noon Sakinah or Tanween we have one of the following letters: (ء), kha’ (خ), ‘ain (ع), ha’ (ح) , ghain (غ), and ha’ (ﮬ)
Then we have to pronounce the Noon Sakinah or Tanween clearly.
Quick example of Ithar:
Here رٌ Raa with tanween meets ha’ (ح) so it reads “Naa Roon Haa miyah ”.
2. Idgham With Gunnah / Idgham Ma’al Ghunnah
Idgham means to merge, and Idgham With Ghunnah or Idgham Ma’al Gunnah means to merge the sound of Noon Sakinah / Tanween with any of the following letters: Noon (ن), mim (م), waw (و), and ya’ (ي)
and add nasalization.
Idgham With Ghunnah example:
This reads “Maa Lawwa ‘addadah” instead of “Maa Laan wa ‘addadah”.
3. Idgham Without Ghunnah
By definition, Idgham Without Ghunnah means to merge without adding nasalization to the sound. When Noon Sakinah / Tanween meets the following two letters: Laam (ل), Raa (ر) then Idgham Without Ghunnah occurs.
Idgham Without Ghunnah example:
أَيَحْسَبُ أَن لَّمْ يَرَهُ أَحَدٌ
Here Laam comes right after Noon Sakinah and so it reads:
“Ayahsabu Allam Yarahu Ahad” as opposed to “Ayahsabu anlam yarahu ahad”
The tajweed rule of Iqlab occurs when Noon Sakinah or Tanween meets the letter ba (ب). When this happens you have to flip or change the pronunciation of Noon Sakinah or Tanween to mimic the sound of meem (م).
Instead of “Min ba’d”, this reads “Meem Ba’d”
5. Al-Ikhfaa Al-Haqiqi
Al-Ikhfaa literally means to conceal, or to hide. The tajweed rule of Al- Ikhfaa Al Haqiqi occurs when Noon Sakinah or Tanween meets any letter other than the letters of Ith-har, Iqlab or Idgham letters. The letters of Al-Ikhfaa are as follow:
ت، ث، ج، د، ذ، ز، س، ش، ص، ض، ط، ظ، ف، ق، ك
The idea is to produce the sound in between Idgham and Ithar with gunnah in Noon Sakinah or Tanween with 2 harakah.
Example of Al Ikhfaa:
This reads “Wa ang~tum ta’lamuun” as opposed to “Wa antum ta’lamuun”
Because here Noon Sakinah meets the letter ت (ta)
II. The Tajweed Rules of Meem Saakin
The second set of rules in Tajweed is The Rules of Meem Saakin. Similarly with the rules of Noon Sakinah and Tanween, this set of tajweed rules apply when a letter Meem with any harakah on it meets a specific letter.
There are three rules for Meem Saakin:
1. Ikhfa Shafawi
Very similar to the rule of Iqlab, Ikhfa Shafawi occurs when Meem Sakinah meets the letter ba (ب). When this happens, pronounce a light nasal sound in the nose for a duration of 2 harakah.
Example of Ikhfa Shafawi:
Pronounce the highlighted letters with ghunnah for 2 harakah.
What this means is that the “mmmm” in “TarmiiHimm Bihijaaratin” is prolonged by 2 seconds and insert a Ghunnah to it.
2. Idgham Shafawi
Idgham Shafawi or idgham mutamatsilain occurs when the letter meem sakinah meets the letter meem ( م). When this happens, the two meems will collide and will be pronounced with Ghunnah and prolonged by 2 harakah.
Examples of Idgham Shafawi or Idgham Mutamatsilain:
الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُمْ مِنْ جُوعٍ
Notice how Meem Sakinah meets Meem so it should read with 2 harakah and Ghunnah.
3. Ithar Shafawi
Easiest to remember, the rule of Ithar Shafawi occurs when the letter meem sakinah meets any of the letters except the letter of Ikhfa Shafawi (ب) & Idgham Shafawi ( م).
Example of Ithar Shafawi:
Here we can pronounce the Meem Sakinah clearly without prolongation or ghunnah
III. The Rules of Al-Mad
The third set of rules in our list is the rules of Al-Mad. Al-Mad means to prolong the pronunciation of a vowel. When Al Maad occurs, there is a minimum prolongation of 2 harakah depending on which Al Maad rule is applied.
There are 3 letters of Al Maad, this means any of the Al Mad Rules are always incorporated with them, they are:
ا – و- ي
While it is up for discussion, there are at least 14 rules of Al Maad built around the two basic rules; The Natural Maad (happens without hamzaa or sakinah) and Maad Far’ee (happens with hamzaa or sakinah)
Example of Natural Al Maad / Al Maad Aslee
Here the letter ي triggers the Natural Al Maad rule so we read “Alladziina” with the highlighted letters elongated by 2 harakah
Example of Al Maad Far’ee (Al Maad Al Muttasil in this case)
Al Maad Al Muttasil occurs when the letter hamzaa comes after the letter of Al Maad
Notice how the letter hamzaa appears right after the letter of maad in the above example.
Here we read “Walmalaaaikatu”.
The highlighted letters are prolonged by 4 harakah.
In sha Allah, in this series of articles, we will dig deeper into each of the rules individually. We aim to regularly update and elaborate on each of the aforementioned rules, in sha Allah.
May Allah bless us all with health and energy so that we can benefit from this knowledge and learn even more, in sha Allah.